Parameters for each technique

All applicable parameters for each technique can be found here. For the inheritance hierarchy of the the techniques, see section PalmSens.Core class hierarchy. See section ‘Available techniques’ in the PSTrace manual for more information about the techniques. The constructors for the method classes of the different techniques are available from the PalmSens.Techniques namespace.

Please refer to the PSTrace manual for explanations and expected values for each parameter.

Common properties

Property Description Type
Technique The technique number used in the firmware System.Int
Notes Some user notes for use with this method System.String
StandbyPotential Standby Potential (for use with cell on after measurement) System.Float
StandbyTime Standby time (for use with cell on after measurement) System.Float
CellOnAfterMeasurement Enable/disable cell after measurement System.Boolean
MinPeakHeight Determines the minimum peak height in µA. Peaks lower than this value are neglected. System.Float
MinPeakWidth The minimum peak width, in the unit of the curves X axis. Peaks narrower than this value are neglected. System.Float
SmoothLevel The smoothlevel to be used.

-1 = none
0 = no smooth (spike rejection only)
1 = 5 points
2 = 9 points
3 = 15 points
4 = 25 points

System.Int
Ranging Ranging information, settings defining the minimum/maximum/starting current range PalmSens.Method.Ranging

 

Pretreatment settings

The following properties specify the measurements pretreatment settings:

Property Description Type
ConditioningPotential Conditioning potential in volt System.Float
ConditioningTime Conditioning duration in seconds System.Float
DepositionPotential Deposition potential in volt System.Float
DepositionTime Deposition duration in seconds System.Float
EquilibrationTime Equilibration duration in seconds. BeginPotential is applied during equilibration and the device switches to the appropriate current range System.Float

 

 

Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.LinearSweep

Property Description Type
BeginPotential Potential where scan starts. System.Float
EndPotential Potential where measurement stops. System.Float
StepPotential Step potential System.Float
Scanrate The applied scan rate. The applicable range depends on the value of E step since the data acquisition rate is limited by the connected instrument. System.Float

 

 

Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.DifferentialPulse

Property Description Type
BeginPotential Potential where scan starts. System.Float
EndPotential Potential where measurement stops. System.Float
StepPotential Step potential System.Float
Scanrate The applied scan rate. The applicable range depends on the value of E step since the data acquisition rate is limited by the connected instrument. System.Float
PulsePotential Pulse potential System.Float
PulseTime The pulse time System.Float

 

 

Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.SquareWave

Property Description Type
BeginPotential Potential where scan starts. System.Float
EndPotential Potential where measurement stops. System.Float
StepPotential Step potential System.Float
PulseAmplitude Amplitude of square wave pulse. Values are half peak-to-peak. System.Float
Frequency The frequency of the square wave System.Float

 

 

Normal Pulse Voltammetry (NPV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.NormalPulse

Property Description Type
BeginPotential Potential where scan starts. System.Float
EndPotential Potential where measurement stops. System.Float
StepPotential Step potential System.Float
Scanrate The applied scan rate. The applicable range depends on the value of E step since the data acquisition rate is limited by the connected instrument. System.Float
PulseTime The pulse time System.Float

 

 

AC  Voltammetry (ACV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.ACVoltammetry

Property Description Type
BeginPotential Potential where scan starts. System.Float
EndPotential Potential where measurement stops. System.Float
StepPotential Step potential System.Float
SineWaveAmplitude Amplitude of sine wave. Values are RMS System.Float
Frequency The frequency of the AC signal System.Float

 

 

Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.CyclicVoltammetry

Property Description Type
BeginPotential Potential where scan starts and stops. System.Float
Vtx1Potential First potential where direction reverses. System.Float
Vtx2Potential Second potential where direction reverses. System.Float
StepPotential Step potential System.Float
Scanrate The applied scan rate. The applicable range depends on the value of E step since the data acquisition rate is limited by the connected instrument. System.Float
nScans The number of repetitions for this scan System.Float

Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Scans

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.FastCyclicVoltammetry

Outdated class. PalmSens 3 and 4 only. CV’s with sampling over 5000 data points per second, use the regular Palmsens.Techniques.CyclicVoltammetry() constructor instead.

 

 

Chronopotentiometric Stripping (SCP)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.ChronoPotStripping

Property Description Type
EndPotential Potential where measurement stops. System.Float
MeasurementTime The maximum measurement time. This value should always exceed the required measurement time. It only limits the time of the measurement. When the potential response is erroneously and E end is not found within this time, the measurement is aborted. System.Float
AppliedCurrentRange The applied current range PalmSens.

CurrentRange

Istrip If specified as 0, the method is called chemical stripping otherwise it is constant current stripping. The current is expressed in the applied current range. System.Float

 

 

Chronoamperometry (CA)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.AmperometricDetection

Property Description Type
Potential Potential during measurement. System.Float
IntervalTime Time between two current samples. System.Float
RunTime Total run time of scan. System.Float

 

 

Pulsed Amperometric Detection (PAD)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.PulsedAmpDetection

Property Description Type
Potential The dc or base potential. System.Float
PulsePotentialAD Potential in pulse. Note that this value is not relative to dc/base potential, given above. System.Float
PulseTime The pulse time. System.Float
tMode DC:                   I(dc) measurement is performed at                         potential E

pulse:                I(pulse) measurement is performed at                         potential E pulse

differential:         I(dif) measurement is I(pulse) –  I(dc)

PalmSens.Techniques.

PulsedAmpDetection.

enumMode

IntervalTime Time between two current samples. System.Float
RunTime Total run time of scan. System.Float

 

 

Fast Amperometry (FAM)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.FastAmperometry

Property Description Type
EqPotentialFA Equilibration potential at which the measurement starts. System.Float
Potential Potential during measurement. System.Float
IntervalTimeF Time between two current samples. System.Float
RunTime Total run time of scan. System.Float

 

 

Chronopotentiometry (CP)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.Potentiometry

Property Description Type
Current The current to apply. The unit of the value is the applied current range. So if 10 uA is the applied current range and 1.5 is given as value, the applied current will be 15 uA. System.Float
AppliedCurrentRange The applied current range. PalmSens.

CurrentRange

RunTime Total run time of scan. System.Float
IntervalTime Time between two potential samples. System.Float

Open Circuit Potentiometry (OCP)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.OpenCircuitPotentiometry

Inherits PalmSens.Techniques.Potentiometry and overrides setting Current with value fixed at 0.

Property Description Type
RunTime Total run time of scan. System.Float
IntervalTime Time between two potential samples. System.Float

 

 

Multiple Pulse Amperometry (MPAD)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.MultiplePulseAmperometry

Property Description Type
E1 First potential level in which the current is recorded System.Float
E2 Second applied potential level System.Float
E3 Third applied potential level System.Float
t1 The duration of the first applied potential System.Float
t2 The duration of the second applied potential System.Float
t3 The duration of the third applied potential System.Float
RunTime Total run time of scan. System.Float

 

 

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.ImpedimetricMethod

The most common properties are described first. These are used for a typical EIS measurement, a scan over a specified range of frequencies (i.e. using the default properties ScanType = ImpedimetricMethod.

enumScanType.FixedPotential and FreqType = ImpedimetricMethod.enumFrequencyType.Scan). The additional properties used for a TimeScan and a PotentialScan are detailed separately in next sections.

Property Description Type
ScanType Scan type specifies whether a single or multiple frequency scans are performed. When set to FixedPotential a single scan will be performed, this is the recommended setting. The TimeScan and PotentialScan are not fully supported in the SDK, we highly recommend you to implement yourself. A TimeScan performs repeated scans at a given time interval within a specified time range. A PotentialScan performs scans where the DC Potential of the applied sine is incremented within a specified range. A PotentialScan should not be performed versus the OCP. ImpedimetricMethod.

enumScanType

Potential The DC potential of the applied sine System.Float
Eac The amplitude of the applied sine in RMS (Root Mean Square) System.Float
FreqType Frequency type specifies whether to perform a scan on a range of frequencies or to measure a single frequency. The latter option can be used in combination with a TimeScan or a PotentialScan. ImpedimetricMethod.

enumFrequencyType

MaxFrequency The highest frequency in the scan, also the frequency at which the measurement is started System.Float
MinFrequency The lowest frequency in the scan System.Float
nFrequencies The number of frequencies included in the scan System.Int
SamplingTime Each measurement point of the impedance spectrum is performed during the period specified by SamplingTime. This means that the number of measured sine waves is equal to SamplingTime * frequency. If this value is less than 1 sine wave, the sampling is extended to 1 / frequency. So for a measurement at a frequency, at least one complete sine wave is measured.

Reasonable values for the sampling are in the range of 0.1 to 1 s.

System.Float
MaxEqTime The impedance measurement requires a stationary state. This means that before the actual measurement starts, the sine wave is applied during MaxEqTime only to reach the stationary state.

The maximum number of equilibration sine waves is however 5. The minimum number of equilibration sines is set to 1, but for very low frequencies, this time is limited by MaxEqTime. The maximum time to wait for stationary state is determined by the value of this parameter. A reasonable value might be 5 seconds. In this case this parameter is only relevant when the lowest frequency is less than 1/ 5 s so 0.2 Hz.

System.Float

 

Time Scan

In a Time Scan impedance spectroscopy measurements are repeated for a specific amount of time at a specific interval. The SDK does not support this feature fully, we recommend you to design your own implementation for this that suits your demands.

Property Description Type
RunTime RunTime is not the total time of the measurement, but the time in which a measurement iteration can be started. If a frequency scan takes 18 seconds and is measured at an interval of 19 seconds for a RunTime of 40 seconds three iterations will be performed. System.Float
IntervalTime IntervalTime specifies the interval at which a measurement iteration should be performed, however if a measurement iteration takes longer than the interval time the next measurement will not be triggered until after it has been completed. System.Float

 

Potential Scan

In a Potential Scan impedance spectroscopy measurements are repeated over a range of DC potential values. The SDK does not support this feature fully, we recommend you to design your own implementation for this that suits your demands.

Property Description Type
BeginPotential The DC potential of the applied sine wave to start the series of iterative measurements at. System.Float
EndPotential The DC potential of the applied sine wave at which the series of iterative measurements ends. System.Float
StepPotential The size of DC potential step to iterate with. System.Float

 

Multiplexer settings

The PalmSens.Method class is also used to specify the multiplexer settings for sequential and alternating measurements. Alternating multiplexer measurements restricted to the chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry techniques.

The enumerator property PalmSens.Method.MuxMethod defines the type multiplexer measurement:

 

methodCA.MuxMethod = MuxMethod.None; //Default setting, no multiplexer
methodCA.MuxMethod = MuxMethod.Alternatingly;
methodCA.MuxMethod = MuxMethod.Sequentially;

//The channels on which to measure are specified in a boolean array PalmSens.Method.UseMuxChannel:

methodCA.UseMuxChannel = new bool[] { true, true, false, false, false, false, false, true };

The code above will perform a measurement on the first two and last channels of an 8-channel multiplexer. For a 16-channel multiplexer you would also need to assign true or false to the last 8 channels.

Alternating multiplexer measurement can only measure on successive channels and must start with the first channel (i.e. it is possible to alternatingly measure on channels 1 through 4 but it is not possible to alternatingly measure on channel 1, 3 and 5).

Recording extra values (BiPot, Aux, CE Potential…)

The PalmSens.Method RecordExtraValue property allows you to record an additional value during your measurement. Not all techniques support recording extra values, the SupportsAuxInput and SupportsBipot properties are used to indicate whether a technique supports the recording of these values. The default value for PalmSens.RecordExtraValue is EnumExtraValue.None.

  • None, no extra value recorded (default)
  • Current
  • Potential
  • WE2, record BiPot readings:

The behavior of the second working electrode is defined with the method’s BipotModePS property. EnumPalmSensBipotMode.Constant sets it to a fixed potential and EnumPalmSensBipotMode.Offset sets it to an offset of the primary working electrode. The value in Volt of the fixed or offset potential is defined with the method’s BiPotPotential property.

  • AuxInput
  • Reverse, record reverse current as used by Square Wave Voltammetry
  • PolyStatWE, not supported in the PalmSens SDK
  • DCcurrent, record the DC current as used with AC Voltammetry
  • CEPotential, (PalmSens4 only)