# Parameters for each technique

All applicable parameters for each technique can be found here. For the inheritance hierarchy of the the techniques, see section PalmSens.Core class hierarchy. See section ‘Available techniques’ in the PSTrace manual for more information about the techniques. The constructors for the method classes of the different techniques are available from the **PalmSens.Techniques** namespace.

Please refer to the PSTrace manual for explanations and expected values for each parameter.

## Common properties

Property | Description | Type |

Technique |
The technique number used in the firmware | System.Int |

Notes |
Some user notes for use with this method | System.String |

StandbyPotential |
Standby Potential (for use with cell on after measurement) | System.Float |

StandbyTime |
Standby time (for use with cell on after measurement) | System.Float |

CellOnAfterMeasurement |
Enable/disable cell after measurement | System.Boolean |

MinPeakHeight |
Determines the minimum peak height in µA. Peaks lower than this value are neglected. | System.Float |

MinPeakWidth |
The minimum peak width, in the unit of the curves X axis. Peaks narrower than this value are neglected. | System.Float |

SmoothLevel |
The smoothlevel to be used.
-1 = none |
System.Int |

Ranging |
Ranging information, settings defining the minimum/maximum/starting current range | PalmSens.Method.Ranging |

## Pretreatment settings

The following properties specify the measurements pretreatment settings:

Property | Description | Type |

ConditioningPotential |
Conditioning potential in volt | System.Float |

ConditioningTime |
Conditioning duration in seconds | System.Float |

DepositionPotential |
Deposition potential in volt | System.Float |

DepositionTime |
Deposition duration in seconds | System.Float |

EquilibrationTime |
Equilibration duration in seconds. BeginPotential is applied during equilibration and the device switches to the appropriate current range | System.Float |

## Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.LinearSweep

Property | Description | Type |

BeginPotential |
Potential where scan starts. | System.Float |

EndPotential |
Potential where measurement stops. | System.Float |

StepPotential |
Step potential | System.Float |

Scanrate |
The applied scan rate. The applicable range depends on the value of E step since the data acquisition rate is limited by the connected instrument. | System.Float |

## Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.DifferentialPulse

Property | Description | Type |

BeginPotential |
Potential where scan starts. | System.Float |

EndPotential |
Potential where measurement stops. | System.Float |

StepPotential |
Step potential | System.Float |

Scanrate |
The applied scan rate. The applicable range depends on the value of E step since the data acquisition rate is limited by the connected instrument. | System.Float |

PulsePotential |
Pulse potential | System.Float |

PulseTime |
The pulse time | System.Float |

## Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.SquareWave

Property | Description | Type |

BeginPotential |
Potential where scan starts. | System.Float |

EndPotential |
Potential where measurement stops. | System.Float |

StepPotential |
Step potential | System.Float |

PulseAmplitude |
Amplitude of square wave pulse. Values are half peak-to-peak. | System.Float |

Frequency |
The frequency of the square wave | System.Float |

## Normal Pulse Voltammetry (NPV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.NormalPulse

Property | Description | Type |

BeginPotential |
Potential where scan starts. | System.Float |

EndPotential |
Potential where measurement stops. | System.Float |

StepPotential |
Step potential | System.Float |

Scanrate |
The applied scan rate. The applicable range depends on the value of E step since the data acquisition rate is limited by the connected instrument. | System.Float |

PulseTime |
The pulse time | System.Float |

## AC Voltammetry (ACV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.ACVoltammetry

Property | Description | Type |

BeginPotential |
Potential where scan starts. | System.Float |

EndPotential |
Potential where measurement stops. | System.Float |

StepPotential |
Step potential | System.Float |

SineWaveAmplitude |
Amplitude of sine wave. Values are RMS | System.Float |

Frequency |
The frequency of the AC signal | System.Float |

## Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.CyclicVoltammetry

Property | Description | Type |

BeginPotential |
Potential where scan starts and stops. | System.Float |

Vtx1Potential |
First potential where direction reverses. | System.Float |

Vtx2Potential |
Second potential where direction reverses. | System.Float |

StepPotential |
Step potential | System.Float |

Scanrate |
System.Float | |

nScans |
The number of repetitions for this scan | System.Float |

### Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Scans

Class: Palmsens.Techniques.FastCyclicVoltammetry

Outdated class. PalmSens 3 and 4 only. CV’s with sampling over 5000 data points per second, use the regular **Palmsens.Techniques.CyclicVoltammetry() **constructor instead.

## Chronopotentiometric Stripping (SCP)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.ChronoPotStripping

Property | Description | Type |

EndPotential |
Potential where measurement stops. | System.Float |

MeasurementTime |
The maximum measurement time. This value should always exceed the required measurement time. It only limits the time of the measurement. When the potential response is erroneously and E end is not found within this time, the measurement is aborted. | System.Float |

AppliedCurrentRange |
The applied current range | PalmSens.
CurrentRange |

Istrip |
If specified as 0, the method is called chemical stripping otherwise it is constant current stripping. The current is expressed in the applied current range. | System.Float |

## Chronoamperometry (CA)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.AmperometricDetection

Property | Description | Type |

Potential |
Potential during measurement. | System.Float |

IntervalTime |
Time between two current samples. | System.Float |

RunTime |
Total run time of scan. | System.Float |

## Pulsed Amperometric Detection (PAD)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.PulsedAmpDetection

Property | Description | Type |

Potential |
The dc or base potential. | System.Float |

PulsePotentialAD |
Potential in pulse. Note that this value is not relative to dc/base potential, given above. | System.Float |

PulseTime |
The pulse time. | System.Float |

tMode |
DC: I(dc) measurement is performed at potential E
pulse: I(pulse) measurement is performed at potential E pulse differential: I(dif) measurement is I(pulse) – I(dc) |
PalmSens.Techniques.
PulsedAmpDetection. enumMode |

IntervalTime |
Time between two current samples. | System.Float |

RunTime |
Total run time of scan. | System.Float |

## Fast Amperometry (FAM)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.FastAmperometry

Property | Description | Type |

EqPotentialFA |
Equilibration potential at which the measurement starts. | System.Float |

Potential |
Potential during measurement. | System.Float |

IntervalTimeF |
Time between two current samples. | System.Float |

RunTime |
Total run time of scan. | System.Float |

## Chronopotentiometry (CP)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.Potentiometry

Property | Description | Type |

Current |
The current to apply. The unit of the value is the applied current range. So if 10 uA is the applied current range and 1.5 is given as value, the applied current will be 15 uA. | System.Float |

AppliedCurrentRange |
The applied current range. | PalmSens.
CurrentRange |

RunTime |
Total run time of scan. | System.Float |

IntervalTime |
Time between two potential samples. | System.Float |

### Open Circuit Potentiometry (OCP)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.OpenCircuitPotentiometry

Inherits PalmSens.Techniques.Potentiometry and overrides setting Current with value fixed at 0.

Property | Description | Type |

RunTime |
Total run time of scan. | System.Float |

IntervalTime |
Time between two potential samples. | System.Float |

## Multiple Pulse Amperometry (MPAD)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.MultiplePulseAmperometry

Property | Description | Type |

E1 |
First potential level in which the current is recorded | System.Float |

E2 |
Second applied potential level | System.Float |

E3 |
Third applied potential level | System.Float |

t1 |
The duration of the first applied potential | System.Float |

t2 |
The duration of the second applied potential | System.Float |

t3 |
The duration of the third applied potential | System.Float |

RunTime |
Total run time of scan. | System.Float |

## Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

Class: PalmSens.Techniques.ImpedimetricMethod

The most common properties are described first. These are used for a typical EIS measurement, a scan over a specified range of frequencies (i.e. using the default properties **ScanType = ****ImpedimetricMethod.**

**enumScanType.FixedPotential** and **FreqType = ImpedimetricMethod.****enumFrequencyType.Scan**). The additional properties used for a **TimeScan** and a **PotentialScan** are detailed separately in next sections.

Property | Description | Type |

ScanType |
Scan type specifies whether a single or multiple frequency scans are performed. When set to FixedPotential a single scan will be performed, this is the recommended setting. The TimeScan and PotentialScan are not fully supported in the SDK, we highly recommend you to implement yourself. A TimeScan performs repeated scans at a given time interval within a specified time range. A PotentialScan performs scans where the DC Potential of the applied sine is incremented within a specified range. A PotentialScan should not be performed versus the OCP. |
ImpedimetricMethod.
enumScanType |

Potential |
The DC potential of the applied sine | System.Float |

Eac |
The amplitude of the applied sine in RMS (Root Mean Square) | System.Float |

FreqType |
Frequency type specifies whether to perform a scan on a range of frequencies or to measure a single frequency. The latter option can be used in combination with a TimeScan or a PotentialScan. | ImpedimetricMethod.
enumFrequencyType |

MaxFrequency |
The highest frequency in the scan, also the frequency at which the measurement is started | System.Float |

MinFrequency |
The lowest frequency in the scan | System.Float |

nFrequencies |
The number of frequencies included in the scan | System.Int |

SamplingTime |
Each measurement point of the impedance spectrum is performed during the period specified by SamplingTime. This means that the number of measured sine waves is equal to SamplingTime * frequency. If this value is less than 1 sine wave, the sampling is extended to 1 / frequency. So for a measurement at a frequency, at least one complete sine wave is measured.
Reasonable values for the sampling are in the range of 0.1 to 1 s. |
System.Float |

MaxEqTime |
The impedance measurement requires a stationary state. This means that before the actual measurement starts, the sine wave is applied during MaxEqTime only to reach the stationary state.
The maximum number of equilibration sine waves is however 5. The minimum number of equilibration sines is set to 1, but for very low frequencies, this time is limited by MaxEqTime. The maximum time to wait for stationary state is determined by the value of this parameter. A reasonable value might be 5 seconds. In this case this parameter is only relevant when the lowest frequency is less than 1/ 5 s so 0.2 Hz. |
System.Float |

### Time Scan

In a Time Scan impedance spectroscopy measurements are repeated for a specific amount of time at a specific interval. The SDK does not support this feature fully, we recommend you to design your own implementation for this that suits your demands.

Property | Description | Type |

RunTime |
RunTime is not the total time of the measurement, but the time in which a measurement iteration can be started. If a frequency scan takes 18 seconds and is measured at an interval of 19 seconds for a RunTime of 40 seconds three iterations will be performed. | System.Float |

IntervalTime |
IntervalTime specifies the interval at which a measurement iteration should be performed, however if a measurement iteration takes longer than the interval time the next measurement will not be triggered until after it has been completed. | System.Float |

### Potential Scan

In a Potential Scan impedance spectroscopy measurements are repeated over a range of DC potential values. The SDK does not support this feature fully, we recommend you to design your own implementation for this that suits your demands.

Property | Description | Type |

BeginPotential |
The DC potential of the applied sine wave to start the series of iterative measurements at. | System.Float |

EndPotential |
The DC potential of the applied sine wave at which the series of iterative measurements ends. | System.Float |

StepPotential |
The size of DC potential step to iterate with. | System.Float |

## Multiplexer settings

The **PalmSens.Method** class is also used to specify the multiplexer settings for sequential and alternating measurements. Alternating multiplexer measurements restricted to the chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry techniques.

The enumerator property **PalmSens.Method.MuxMethod** defines the type multiplexer measurement:

methodCA.MuxMethod = MuxMethod.None; //Default setting, no multiplexer methodCA.MuxMethod = MuxMethod.Alternatingly; methodCA.MuxMethod = MuxMethod.Sequentially; //The channels on which to measure are specified in a boolean array PalmSens.Method.UseMuxChannel: methodCA.UseMuxChannel = new bool[] { true, true, false, false, false, false, false, true };

The code above will perform a measurement on the first two and last channels of an 8-channel multiplexer. For a 16-channel multiplexer you would also need to assign true or false to the last 8 channels.

Alternating multiplexer measurement can only measure on successive channels and must start with the first channel (i.e. it is possible to alternatingly measure on channels 1 through 4 but it is not possible to alternatingly measure on channel 1, 3 and 5).

## Recording extra values (BiPot, Aux, CE Potential…)

The **PalmSens.Method RecordExtraValue** property allows you to record an additional value during your measurement. Not all techniques support recording extra values, the **SupportsAuxInput** and **SupportsBipot** properties are used to indicate whether a technique supports the recording of these values. The default value for **PalmSens.RecordExtraValue** is **EnumExtraValue.None**.

- None, no extra value recorded (default)
- Current
- Potential
- WE2, record BiPot readings:

The behavior of the second working electrode is defined with the method’s **BipotModePS** property. **EnumPalmSensBipotMode.Constant** sets it to a fixed potential and **EnumPalmSensBipotMode.Offset** sets it to an offset of the primary working electrode. The value in Volt of the fixed or offset potential is defined with the method’s **BiPotPotential **property.

- AuxInput
- Reverse, record reverse current as used by Square Wave Voltammetry
- PolyStatWE, not supported in the PalmSens SDK
- DCcurrent, record the DC current as used with AC Voltammetry
- CEPotential, (PalmSens4 only)