Frequency response analyzer
A frequency response analyzer is a device that allows you to transmit a wave with a certain frequency and receive a response wave. In electrochemical research, a frequency response analyzer is used for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).
In the past, a frequency response analyzer was only the device that emitted a signal and recorded the answer to it. In order to carry out an entire electrochemical experiment, an additional potentiostat was needed. The potentiostat connected the frequency waves with an electrochemical cell and received the response wave.
Nowadays, potentiostats are usually equipped with a frequency response analyzer so that you only need one device for the entire experiment. So if you need a frequency response analyzer, the purchase of a simple portable potentiostat is usually a suitable choice.
How does a frequency response analyzer work?
A frequency response analyzer transmits a frequency wave of a certain height. The answer to this wave is also a periodic signal. The frequency response analyzer measures both the height of the wave (the magnitude or amplitude) and the phase shift (the time difference between the transmitted and received signal, see Figure 1).
In electrochemical research, a frequency response analyzer is used to measure the electric current response as reaction to a potential wave. The magnitude allows calculating the impedance. You can do this for example with our Palmsens4 potentiostat, galvanostate and EIS Analyzer.
This test is repeated at different frequencies. In a graph, a researcher can see how different frequencies influence a certain system. This information is useful, for example, when testing cables.
At low frequencies, only slow changes will occur; chemical processes are responsible for the major contribution. However, at high frequencies, only physical influences will influence the signal (Figure 2).
How is a frequency response analyzer applied?
A frequency response analyzer is used, among other things, when testing cables that are required to transmit signal. For example, a researcher wants to know what frequencies this cable can transmit or how much signal is lost when using these cables.
In electrochemical investigations, a frequency response analyzer is used to demonstrate the presence of a given substance in a liquid, for example, the presence of a certain DNA. It can also be used to investigate the resilience of materials and interfaces, such as the resilience of a certain paint layer. Read more about this on our Palmsens Corrosion website.
Advantages of a Frequency Response Analyzer
The great advantage of a Frequency Response Analyzer is that it enables the user to perform a test without having to destroy an object. This allows a manufacturer to test each of his products before leaving the door without actually using or damaging them.
Another advantage is the predictive value of tests performed with a Frequency Response Analyzer. A Frequency Response Analyzer test takes little time, while the classic tests for corrosion take weeks.
Frequency Response Analyzer Sensors
To determine the quantity of a certain substance with EIS, a sensor is used that is connected to the analyzer. This sensor has a certain sensitivity to the substance you want to measure, so its impedance changes in a known way depending on the amount of the substance present. For this reason, there are many different sensors that each react differently to certain chemical substances.
Some sensors can be used several times, other only once. These sensors change permanently as a result of the substances sticking to them. Check out our sensors here.
Frequency Response Analyzer software
Without the right software, you have little to gain from a Frequency Response Analyzer. You want to see the measurements in a graph. Our Frequency Response Response Analyzer, the PalmSens4 galvanostaat, is therefore sold including its own easy-to-use software, which allows you to run right away. You can also use common spreadsheet software suitable for creating graphs. A function for equivalent circuit fitting is included, too.
Frequency Response Analyzer prices
Frequency Response Analyzers can be very expensive. However, PalmSens has succeeded in developing a Frequency Response Analyzer that is very affordable, especially considering its specifications.