PalmSens4 seriesPalmSens3  (no longer available)EmStat3 seriesEmStat3+ series
EmStat3 Blue
EmStat3 4WE
EmStat3 MUX
EmStat3+ Blue
dc-potential range±5 V or
±10 V
±5 V±3 V±4 V
compliance voltage±10 V±8 V±5 V±8 V
maximum current±30 mA±30 mA±20 mA±100 mA
Potentiostat (controlled potential mode)
applied dc-potential resolution75 µV150 µV100 µV125 µV
applied potential accuracy≤ 0.1% < 1 mV offset≤ 0.2 % < 2 mV offset≤ 0.2 % < 2 mV offset≤ 0.2 % < 3 mV offset
current ranges100 pA to 10 mA (9 ranges)100 pA to 10 mA (9 ranges)1 nA to 10 mA (8 ranges)1 nA to 100 mA (9 ranges)
current accuracy≤ 0.1 % (FSR)≤ 0.2 % (FSR)≤ 0.5 %
≤ 0.5 %
measured current resolution0.006% of current range (5 fA on 100 pA range)0.01% of current range0.1% of current range0.1% of current range
max. scan rate500 V/s with 10 mV step500 V/s with 5 mV step5 V/s with 5 mV step5 V/s with 5 mV step
Galvanostat (controlled current mode)
current ranges1 nA to 10 mA (8 ranges)1 µA to 10 mA (5 ranges)  
applied dc-current resolution0.005 % of applied current range0.01 % of applied current range  
measured dc-potential resolution75 μV at ±10 V 7.5 μV at ±1 V 0.75 μV at ±0.1 V150 µV100 µV125 µV
FRA / EIS (impedance measurements)
frequency range10 µHz to 100 kHz or 1 MHz100 µHz to 50 kHzN/AN/A
ac-amplitude range1 mV to 0.25 V (rms)1 mV to 0.25 V (rms)N/AN/A
electrometer amplifier input> 1 TΩ // 10 pF> 100 Gohm // 4 pF> 100 Gohm // 4 pFN/A
bandwidth1 MHz700 kHz35 kHzN/A
internal Bluetooth 
internal storage8 GBN/AN/AN/A


Which EmStat instrument is suitable for me?

EmStat is available as single channel potentiostat. The more advanced EmStat Blue is wireless by means of its integrated Bluetooth radio and battery and has an auxiliary port for connecting extensions.

EmStat is also available combined with a multiplexer, as a polypotentiostat, or as multichannel potentiostat. The differences between these types of devices is explained here.

The EmStat and multiplexer boards are also available as OEM potentiostat for implementing EmStats in your device, e.g. in an e-QCM or e-SPR instrument.