Product Description

Our flagship instrument, the PalmSens4, is a USB and battery powered Potentiostat, Galvanostat, and optional a Frequency Response Analyser (FRA) for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The PalmSens4 has a large potential range (-5V to 5V or -10V to 10V) and current range (100 pA to 10 mA) with a high resolution and low noise. This instrument is a complete laboratory instrument but its compact and rugged design makes it also ideal for field work.

Available Configurations

The PalmSens4 is available with ±5V or ±10V DC-potential ranges and with different maximum frequencies for FRA / EIS. The following table shows the applicable product codes:

DC-Potential Range of ±5V
DC-Potential Range of ±10V
NO EIS [F0] (see PalmSens3) PS4.F0.10
EIS up to 100 kHz [F1] PS4.F1.05 PS4.F1.10
EIS up to 1 MHz [F2] PS4.F2.05 PS4.F2.10


Standard included with a PalmSens4:

  • high quality, double shielded cell cable
  • 2 mm banana connectors for working, counter, reference electrode and ground
  • mini-crocodile clips
  • USB cable
  • Dummy cell
  • software


Voltammetric techniques:

  • Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV)
  • Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)
  • Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV)
  • Normal Pulse Voltammetry (NPV)
  • AC Voltammetry (ACV)
  • Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)

These methods can all be used in their stripping modes which are applied for (ultra-) trace analysis.

  • Stripping chronopotentiometry (PSA or SCP)

Technique as a function of time:

  • Chronoamperometry (CA)
  • Pulsed Amperometric Detection (PAD)
  • Multiple Pulse Amperometry (MPAD)
  • Fast amperometry (FAM)
  • Chronopotentiometry (CP)
  • Open Circuit Potentiometry (OCP)
  • Multistep Amperometry (MA)
  • Multistep Potentiometry (MP)
  • Mixed Mode (MM)

Impedance spectroscopy / EIS:

  • Potential scan
  • Time scan

Scans can be made at a fixed frequency or with a frequency scan.

  • Fixed potential


Measurement Specifications

General pretreatment:

Apply conditioning, deposition or initial potential for: 0 – 1600 s

General voltammetric parameters:

PS4 Model PS4.F1.05
Potential range: -5 V to +5 V -10 V to +10 V
Step potential: 0.075 mV to 250 mV 0.075 mV to 250 mV
Pulse potential: 0.075 mV to 250 mV 0.075 mV to 250 mV

Limits of some technique specific parameters for PalmSens4:

Technique Parameter Limit
Normal Pulse and
Differential Pulse Voltammetry:
Scan rate:
Pulse time:
0.1 mV/s (75 µV step) to
100 mV/s (5 mV step)10 ms to 300 ms
Square Wave Voltammetry1 and AC Voltammetry: Frequency: 1 Hz to 2000 Hz 1
Linear Sweep and
Cyclic Voltammetry:     
Scan rate: 0.01 mV/s (75 µV step) to
500 V/s (10 mV step)
ChronoAmperometry : Interval time:
Max. run time:
0.25 ms to 300 s
1000000 s (> 10 days at 16 s interval)
Pulsed Amperometric Detection: Interval time:
Pulse time:
Max. run time:
50 ms to 300 s
1 ms to 1 s
640000 s (> 7 days at 10 s interval)
Multiple Pulse Amperometric Detection: Pulse times:
Run time:
E levels:
100 ms to 2 s
10 s to 100000 s
Fast Amperometry: Interval time:
Max. run time:
Max. points:
0.02 ms to 1 s
30 s
65000 (4000 for interval time < 0.2 ms)
ChronoPotentiometry and
Open Circuit Potentiometry:
Interval time:
Max. run time:
0.25 ms to 300 s
1000000 s (> 10 days at 300 s interval)
Multistep Amperometry
Multistep Potentiometry and
Mixed Mode:
Interval time:
Level switching overhead time:
Number of levels:
Number of cycles:
Max. run time:

0.25 ms to 300 s
±80 ms
1 to 255
1 to 20000
> 1 year



 Note: some limits of parameters are set for practical reasons and can be modified on request.

1 PSTrace provides the option to measure forward and reverse currents separately.


dc-potential range ± 10 V (or ± 5 V)
compliance voltage ± 10V
maximum current ± 30 mA (typical)
max. acquisition rate 150,000 data points/s
Potentiostat (controlled potential mode)
applied dc-potential resolution 75 µV
applied potential accuracy ≤ 0.1% ± 1 mV offset
current ranges 100 pA to 10 mA (9 ranges)
current accuracy ≤ 0.1 % (at Full Scale Range)
measured current resolution 0.006 % of current range (5 fA on 100 pA range)
Galvanostat (controlled current mode)
current ranges 1 nA to 10 mA (8 ranges)
applied dc-current range ± 6 times applied current range
applied dc-current resolution 0.005 % of applied current range
measured dc-potential accuracy 75 μV at ± 10 V
7.5 μV at ± 1 V
0.75 μV at ± 0.1 V
FRA / EIS (impedance measurements)
frequency range 10 μHz to 1 MHz (or 10 μHz to 100 kHz)
ac-amplitude range 1 mV to 0.25 V rms, or 0.6 V p-p
electrometer amplifier input > 1 TΩ // 10 pF
bandwidth 1 MHz
housing  aluminium with rubber sleeve: 15.7 x 9.7 x 3.5 cm3
weight 500 g
temperature range 0 ºC to + 50 ºC
power supply USB or internal LiPo battery
communication USB and Bluetooth
battery time > 16 hours idle time
> 4 hours with cell on at max. current
Extendable by means of power bank
internal storage space 4 GB
or +/- 400000 measurements incl. method info (assuming 200 data points per measurement)
Auxiliary port (D-Sub 15)
analog input ± 10 V, 18 bit
analog output 0-10 V, 12 bit (1 kOhm output impedance)
4 digital outputs 0-3.3 V
1 digital input 0-3.3 V (5 V tolerant)
I-out and E-out raw output of current and potential
E-out ± 10 V (1 kOhm output impedance)
I-out ± 6 V (1 kOhm output impedance)
power 5 V output (max. 150 mA)


The current is measured using a zero resistance ammeter (ZRA).




Main extensions for PalmSens4:

Click here to see all PalmSens4 compatible extensions and accessories.


PalmSens4 is shipped with the new PSTrace 5.0 software.
New in PSTrace 5.0:

  • Equivalent Circuit Fitting and Simulation for EIS
  • Support for PalmSens4; view and copy data on its internal 4GB storage
  • New technique: Mixed Mode for combining potentiometry and amperometry, potential sweeps and measuring at open circuit
  • Improved UI
  • New “.pssession” file format introduced for always saving all available measurements, method information and meta data to a single file.




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PalmSens always responds to your quotation request within one business day.


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